How Anglo-German Antagonism Shaped the Modern World: From 1860 to 1914
The Rise of Anglo-German Antagonism Pdf Free
If you are interested in learning more about one of the most important and influential historical phenomena of modern times, you might want to read a book on the rise of Anglo-German antagonism. This term refers to the rivalry and hostility that developed between Britain and Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which had profound consequences for both countries and for world history. In this article, we will explore what Anglo-German antagonism was, what caused it, what resulted from it, and what legacy it left behind. We will also show you how to download a free pdf version of a book that covers this topic in detail.
The Rise Of Anglo-german Antagonism Pdf Free
What is Anglo-German Antagonism?
Anglo-German antagonism is a term that describes the state of rivalry and hostility that existed between Britain and Germany from around 1890 to 1945. It was one of the main factors that shaped international politics in this period, leading to two world wars, a global depression, a radical ideological movement, and a major transformation in world order. It was also a source of intense cultural conflict, affecting how both nations perceived themselves and each other.
The term antagonism implies a mutual opposition and animosity that goes beyond mere competition or disagreement. It suggests a deep-rooted and enduring enmity that is hard to overcome or resolve. The term Anglo-German indicates the national identity and affiliation of the two main protagonists of this antagonism, although it also involved other countries and regions that were allied or associated with them.
The term the rise of Anglo-German antagonism implies a historical process and development that did not exist before or after the specified time frame. It suggests a change in the nature and intensity of the relationship between Britain and Germany, from one of cooperation and friendship to one of confrontation and enmity.
The Causes of Anglo-German Antagonism
The rise of Anglo-German antagonism was the result of a complex and dynamic interaction of various factors that influenced the political, economic, social, and cultural spheres of both countries. Some of these factors were structural and long-term, such as the changes in the balance of power and the emergence of nationalism. Some were situational and short-term, such as the crises and conflicts that erupted in different parts of the world. Some were internal and domestic, such as the political and ideological trends and movements that shaped the public opinion and policy-making of both countries. Some were external and international, such as the alliances and rivalries that involved other major powers.
In this section, we will focus on four main causes that contributed to the rise of Anglo-German antagonism: economic competition, naval race, colonial ambitions, and cultural differences. We will examine how each of these factors affected the interests, perceptions, and actions of both countries, and how they interacted with each other to create a climate of tension and mistrust.
One of the main causes of Anglo-German antagonism was the economic competition between both countries, which resulted from their different levels and patterns of industrialization and commercialization. Britain was the first country to undergo the Industrial Revolution, which gave it a head start in developing its manufacturing, trade, finance, and transport sectors. By the late 19th century, Britain was the world's leading economic power, with a global network of markets, colonies, and investments. Britain's economic dominance was based on its liberal and free-trade policies, which favored open markets, low tariffs, and free movement of goods and capital.
Germany, on the other hand, was a latecomer to industrialization, which only took off after its unification in 1871. However, Germany soon caught up with Britain in terms of its industrial output, technological innovation, and economic growth. By the early 20th century, Germany was the world's second-largest economy, with a strong base in heavy industry, chemicals, engineering, and electricity. Germany's economic rise was based on its protectionist and interventionist policies, which favored closed markets, high tariffs, and state support for industry and agriculture.
The economic competition between Britain and Germany was a source of both cooperation and conflict. On one hand, both countries benefited from trading with each other, as they had complementary products and markets. On the other hand, both countries also competed with each other for access to resources, markets, and investments in different regions of the world. The economic rivalry between Britain and Germany was especially acute in areas where they had overlapping or conflicting interests, such as Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
Another major cause of Anglo-German antagonism was the naval race between both countries, which resulted from their different strategies and ambitions regarding their maritime power. Britain had a long tradition of naval supremacy, which was essential for its security, trade, empire, and prestige. By the late 19th century, Britain had the world's largest and most powerful navy, with a fleet of modern battleships, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and aircraft carriers. Britain's naval policy was based on its "two-power standard", which aimed to maintain a navy that was at least equal to the combined strength of any two potential rivals.
Germany, on the other hand, had a relatively weak naval tradition, which was overshadowed by its land-based army and its continental focus. However, after its unification and industrialization, Germany developed a strong ambition to become a world power, which required a strong navy to protect its interests and influence overseas. By the early 20th century, Germany had the world's second-largest and most modern navy, with a fleet of advanced battleships, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and zeppelins. Germany's naval policy was based on its "risk theory", which aimed to challenge Britain's naval supremacy by building a navy that was strong enough to pose a serious threat to Britain's security and trade.
The naval race between Britain and Germany was a source of both admiration and fear. On one hand, both countries respected each other's naval achievements and innovations, and exchanged visits and compliments between their naval officers and officials. On the other hand, both countries also feared each other's naval intentions and capabilities, and engaged in a costly and dangerous arms race that escalated the tension and mistrust between them. The naval rivalry between Britain and Germany was especially intense in areas where they had strategic or symbolic interests, such as the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.
A third major cause of Anglo-German antagonism was the colonial ambitions of both countries, which resulted from their different levels and patterns of imperial expansion and domination. Britain had a long history of colonialism, which began in the 16th century and reached its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By then, Britain had the world's largest and most diverse empire, which spanned across every continent and ocean, and comprised of various types of colonies, dominions, protectorates, mandates, and spheres of influence. Britain's colonial policy was based on its "informal empire", which aimed to control as much territory and resources as possible with as little interference and responsibility as possible.
Germany, on the other hand, had a short history of colonialism, which only began in the late 19th century and ended in the early 20th century. By then, Germany had the world's smallest and most scattered empire, which consisted of a few territories in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, and faced constant challenges from other colonial powers. Germany's colonial policy was based on its "formal empire", which aimed to acquire as much prestige and influence as possible with as much involvement and commitment as possible.
The colonial ambitions of Britain and Germany were a source of both cooperation and conflict. On one hand, both countries shared a common interest in promoting trade, civilization, and Christianity in their colonies, and sometimes collaborated or compromised on their colonial issues. On the other hand, both countries also competed with each other for access to territory, resources, markets, and influence in their colonies, and sometimes clashed or confronted each other on their colonial disputes. The colonial rivalry between Britain and Germany was particularly acute in areas where they had overlapping or conflicting claims or interests, such as Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
A fourth major cause of Anglo-German antagonism was the cultural differences between both countries, which resulted from their different values, ideologies, and identities. Britain had a long tradition of liberalism, which was based on the principles of individualism, democracy, constitutionalism, free trade, and international law. Britain's cultural identity was shaped by its insular and maritime nature, its Anglo-Saxon and Protestant heritage, and its cosmopolitan and multicultural outlook. Britain's cultural influence was spread by its language, literature, and media, which were widely used and consumed around the world.
Germany, on the other hand, had a short tradition of nationalism, which was based on the ideals of collectivism, authoritarianism, militarism, protectionism, and power politics. Germany's cultural identity was shaped by its continental and landlocked nature, its Germanic and Catholic heritage, and its homogeneous and monocultural outlook. Germany's cultural influence was expressed by its science, technology, and music, which were highly regarded and respected around the world.
The cultural differences between Britain and Germany were a source of both attraction and repulsion. On one hand, both countries admired and appreciated each other's cultural achievements and contributions, and exchanged ideas and influences between their intellectuals and artists. On the other hand, both countries also despised and resented each other's cultural values and attitudes, and propagated stereotypes and prejudices between their publics and politicians. The cultural conflict between Britain and Germany was especially evident in areas where they had contrasting or incompatible views or interests, such as Europe, America, and the world order.